The Copenhagen Accord, a political agreement reached by world leaders at the UN climate change conference in Copenhagen in 2009, calls on participating countries to pledge specific measures to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. This is the first time that all the world`s major economies have made explicit international climate promises. The Cancun agenda was also an agreement on a “Green Fund” to disburse aid pledged by industrialized countries in Copenhagen, $100 billion a year until 2020 for developing countries, to adapt climate change through shoreline construction and changes in agricultural patterns, as well as install clean energy sources. Agreement of CoP21 adopted unanimously at the plenary session; Common but differentiated responsibilities provide a cushion for developing countries. The agreement states that the world should reach peak emissions as quickly as possible and achieve a balance between sources and sinks of greenhouse gases (GHGs) in the second half of this century. The agreement states that its goal is to keep the increase in global temperature below 2 degrees Celsius, but to pursue efforts to keep it below 1.5 degrees Celsius of pre-industrial times. The Group makes it clear that, while cooperating fully with France to reach an agreement, it wants specific and clear provisions on financial assistance. The main success of this conference was the INDCs. The Planned National Contributions (INDCs) will form the basis for the fight against climate change after 2020, when the new agreement will enter into force. INDCs are the (now national) commitments that benefit from countries` autonomy) expected by countries to keep the average increase in global temperature below 2°C – the internationally agreed limit, which aims to prevent irreversible climate change.
Industrialized countries have been asked to release financial resources, but $100 billion is not included in the agreement. $100 billion has been moved into the text of the decision, which is a list of all the decisions taken at the conference. Not surprisingly, nations have not adopted a binding climate agreement. The summit resulted in a non-binding agreement that calls on rich countries to reduce their greenhouse gas emissions from the amounts promised a year ago at COP15. These reductions are also not legally binding. The Paris Agreement firmly enshrines “differentiation” for developing countries. In many places, differentiation is achieved through different commitments between developed and developing countries. It is a reality that a global climate agreement without the help of the world`s largest emitter, the United States, cannot do much of the gap in co-2 emissions around the world. Forging an agreement in Paris will require courageous leadership.